REPORT: Green reconstruction. Post-war green recovery of Ukraine
Authors: Krzysztof Bocian, Dominika Jędrzejczak, Krzysztof Kobyłka, Olha Stohnushenko
Giving the post-war reconstruction of Ukraine a green direction seems to be the only right path. Shared visions and goals with Europe can not only support the integration process but also facilitate Ukraine’s independence from fossil fuel imports from Russia and prepare the country for other important challenges of the future, related to the climate crisis.
Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, which launched in February 2022, led to massive destruction of the country in a very short period. As a result of the warfare, buildings and infrastructure were destroyed, making some areas impossible to live in. The scale of destruction goes beyond the modern experience of Europe, which has been free of war for decades.
In May 2022, the launch of the Platform for Rebuilding Ukraine, co-led by Ukraine and the European Commission, was announced. This platform is intended to target a combination of investment and reform that will simultaneously support Ukraine’s accession to the European Union. Two criteria are to be crucial on this road: green and digital solutions. Thus, the priorities of Ukraine’s post-war reconstruction are meant to coincide with the direction of transformation that the EU itself is pursuing.
In June 2022, a historic decision was made to grant Ukraine candidate status for European Union membership. Ukraine’s post-war reconstruction, implemented with EU support, may significantly shorten the country’s path to EU membership. Giving the post-war reconstruction of Ukraine a green direction seems to be the only right path. Shared visions and goals with Europe can not only support the integration process but also facilitate Ukraine’s independence from fossil fuel imports from Russia and prepare the country for other important challenges of the future, related to the climate crisis.
RAPORT: Just public procurement for better reconstruction. Impacts of the award of public contracts on the reconstruction of Ukraine and the integration to the EU
Authors: Olena Shestopaliuk, Maciej Sychowiec, Anastasiia Vereshchynska
Cooperation: Piotr Bogdanowicz, Wojciech Lewandowski
In such challenging times for Ukraine, the shape of procurement rules will determine the shape of the post-war recovery itself. Public procurement can be used strategically for achieving long-term environmental, social, and economic goals. Respective policies should reflect a strategic approach and provide incentives for public authorities and suppliers to engage in sustainable procurement. Implementation of a sustainable and just procurement policy will be required in the context of efficient reconstruction to attract appropriate international assistance and boost the business environment, innovation, social inclusion, and the recovery of affected industrial sectors in a climate-friendly way. It is also important that the reconstruction support is aligned with Ukraine’s EU integration process, complying with the EU procurement principles and standards.
Ukraine’s aspiration to adhere to European values and standards and longstanding desire to achieve full EU membership has resulted in it obtaining EU candidate country status3. It is also important to highlight that Ukraine’s path in its early phase and the long-term recovery process is strongly linked to European integration, which requires the alignment of Ukraine’s policies with EU principles and standards. In this context, full implementation of Ukraine’s obligations under the Association Agreement between the European Union and Ukraine (hereinafter the Association Agreement) ncluding, in particular, adherence to the principles of sustainable development and green economy is receiving priority attention.
We want to focus in this report on potential instruments to enable the potential of these plans, and chose to focus on public procurement. This legal and policy tool is particularly important for the rules of spending available public funds for recovery, and therefore deserves thorough attention. The shape of the procurement rules will determine the shape of the recovery itself. Well-timed, appropriate international assistance and mechanisms of transparent public procurement at all stages are prerequisites for effective recovery financing as noted in the Recovery Plan.
Analysing the recovery initiatives for Ukraine, a futureproof recovery and procurement are obviously interrelated elements that will ensure a positive perception of sustainable activities for all stakeholders. Moreover, implementation of the procurement policy in an open and transparent manner will attract more donor funds, which are necessary for recovery projects. Therefore, to boost the business environment, reconstruction procurement should be efficiently implemented.
REPORT: Fair winds for recovery. How onshore wind development can help Ukraine and Europe in green recovery and beyond
Author: Andrian Prokip
Cooperation: Krzysztof Kobyłka
The future necessity of a post-war renovation opens opportunities for modernization of the economy and the energy sector, where wind power may play one of the critical roles. The necessity to decrease dependency on fossils and improve the country’s energy self-sufficiency, the need to substitute depreciated and damaged energy facilities with new and modern, the inevitability of the energy transition, and the need to follow EU’s climate policy due to Ukraine’s European integration aspirations – all these comply with the potential of the wind power in Ukraine.
For decades Ukraine’s reliance on fossils, primarily Russian, was a part of the geopolitical puzzle to feed oligarchs and ruling elites with corruptive rent and was used to keep Ukraine in Russia’s orbit of influence. However, Ukraine has a vast potential for renewable energy, among which wind power holds the top place. Development of the renewable power industry started in 2008 and had a good push after 2014 when the Revolution of Dignity was a new spin on breaking Russia’s political and energy
dependency. The wind power sector demonstrated good growth in recent years but still is far from enough to use available potential and cover domestic energy needs.
Russian full-scale war against Ukraine unleashed on February 24, 2022, was related to massive destructions, including the energy infrastructure. Sure, before the war ends, the condition of the economy and the damages to the energy sector are still unclear. But the future necessity of a postwar renovation opens opportunities for modernization of the economy and the energy sector, where wind power may play one of the critical roles. The necessity to decrease dependency on fossils and improve the country’s energy self-sufficiency, the need to substitute depreciated and damaged energy facilities with new and modern, the inevitability of the energy transition, and the need to follow EU’s climate policy due to Ukraine’s European integration aspirations – all these comply with the potential of the wind power in Ukraine.
REPORT: Urban planning and housing policy. The challenges of Post‑war reconstruction of Ukraine
Author: Nataliya Lushnikova
All urban planning and housing policy solutions in the period of war and post‑war recovery need to be based on precise data on the level of migration and damages of the cities. The environmental agenda needs to be included and implemented in the reconstruction process. The effectiveness of the actions depends on the qualitative collaboration of the government, business, and civic society in facilitating the EU institutions. The urban planning policy and housing policy, as a part of this, needs to be reconsidered to be more transparent and to meet the EU directives.
Due to the full-scale Russian invasion, Ukraine faces challenges and risks in all areas of life. The heavy fights in urban areas have led to numerous victims, significant damage, and a refugee crisis. Since February 24, 2022, almost 13 million people in Ukraine have fled their homes due to the Russian invasion.
By June 7, at least 4.8 million refugees (mostly women and children) have been recorded at border crossings from Ukraine, with another 2.3 million crossings back into the country.
By May 11, the total number of internally displaced persons in Ukraine was over 8 million persons. According to data from the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, there is an observed tendency towards an increasing the number of persons returning to Ukraine, and the number of persons who went abroad from western oblasts (36,000) is even smaller than the number of persons moving within Ukraine (37,000) as of July 5.
At the beginning of June, direct losses to Ukraine’s economy from the damage and destruction of residential and non-residential buildings and infrastructure due to the full-scale invasion of Russia had already exceed 105.5 billion dollars, and the total amount of infrastructure damage is estimated at 564–600 billion dollars. Ukraine now faces the challenges of post‑war recovery, and presented The National Plan at the beginning of July.
REPORT: Water sector. The significant aspect of the post‑war recovery of Ukraine
Author: Anna Tsvietkova, NGO „Women Water Partnership – Ukraine”
Post‑war reconstruction of the water sector has to be based on assessment of water resources available for post‑war reconstruction of Ukrainian society, economy and nature and understanding of the key role of water as interconnector for security and development of Ukraine. Implementation of integrated and proactive (risk-oriented) water resources management based on European experience can be the shortest way from war emergency response to sustainable development and disaster risk resilience.
Natural water resources scarcity and unequal seasonal and spatial distribution is still a main challenge for water management in Ukraine. Old infrastructural solutions are not adequate response to new challenges and risks. Rapid warming, increasing frequency and severeness of droughts, floods, extreme weather events in Ukraine are resulted in increasing water risks related to availability and access to sufficient quantity and good quality of fresh water resources.
War activities in Eastern Ukraine since 2014 affected significantly the WS of the Donbas Region. Since 24 February 2022 the war escalation has triggered an immediate and steep rise in humanitarian needs. Main water infrastructures in many cities were damaged by military activities and as a result thousands and millions of served people have limited or do not have access to safe drinking water.
Post‑war reconstruction of the water sector has to be based on assessment of water resources available for post‑war reconstruction of Ukrainian society, economy and nature and understanding of the key role of water as interconnector for security and development of Ukraine.