The manufacturing industry is the most energy intensive sector of Polish economy and one of the greatest emitters. Given that the Polish energy mix is highly reliant on fossil fuels, industrial production has a large CO2 emission footprint owning to the energy uptake.
There is an urgent need for industry decarbonization in Poland, by decarbonizing industrial processes, increasing energy efficiency and supplying green energy to industrial plants.
Some industrial branches, i.e. cement, steel and chemical production, are referred to as “hard-to-abate”. They are especially difficult to decarbonize, as the substantial part of their emissions is related to production processes themselves and not to electricity needs. These emissions gave up to 7% of total Poland’s CO2 emissions in 2019.
Alternative technologies are needed, such as hydrogen-based steel and ammonia production or carbon capture and storage (CCS) to abate emissions. This report therefore identifies key opportunities and, foremost, barriers in the policy and regulatory framework, as on the financial market, to conduct the industry decarbonization in Poland on a large scale.